Born Nicolaus Copernicus (1473 – 1543) was a Polish astronomer who first presented the idea that the planets revolve around the sun, not earth, as was the belief of the time. There is ample information on this individual and I would be selling him short referring to him being an astronomer. As he is so much more.
He purposely delayed publication of his own book De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium because of the dissention he knew it would cause, and cause it did, as this work is credited as being a major part in the birth of the Scientific Revolution. It was published just before his death. After the Protestant and Catholic Church both denounced Pythagorean Theory, they removed his work from their proscribed list in 1835.